Agriculture is an integral constituent of Indian culture, from early civilization of societal evolution and hence principally known as an agrarian country. Farmers of this land had been demonstrating their skill and innovative practices in cultivation of range of crops with domestic animal sources. Post-independence population of India grown from 36 cr to 140 cr till 2022 and is estimated to 166 cr by 2050. Recent reports shown that, though India is progressing to achieve self-sufficiency in food grains productivity, many major environmental challenges such as loss of soil fertility, waterlogging, pollution, excessive use of fertilizers and pest controllers, leading to imbalance in the farm ecology. Although MSP has changed the scope of cultivation, it has led many farmers to adopt mono cropping patterns which has led to depletion of fresh groundwater resources resulted in increasing baseline water stress. Dependency on imports for oil and oilseeds costs national reserves and sovereignty on food security.
According to a report during 2019-20, agriculture and allied sectors absorbed a total of 45.6% employees. (PLFS data, NITI Aayog 2022). The extreme weather resulting in crop losses estimated at around 0.25% of India’s GDP (Singh et al., 2019), the small and marginal land hold farmers affected in every natural disaster. About 3,40,000 ha crop area and over 59,000 livestock was affected in early 2022: all these causing farmers’ increased debt burden, and some commit suicide. It is also reported that average income from farming per day: Rs 26.67 and average debt on a farmer is over Rs 74,000. (NSSO, 2021).
Despite adoption of new technologies, development and knowledge initiatives including MGNREGA 2005, KVK, FPOs, APMCs, e-NAM, NABARD, Agro financial institutions and many NGOs, urban migration is growing, which causes irrational use of natural resources, pollution, security, and employment. Hence, considering the needs of growing population, food security and nutrition, carbon footprint, global warming, national agriculture policy shall be drafted where the welfare of farmer is priority while the Rural India rises to increase their stake in national development.